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Since the head of state was the tsar of Russia, it was not clear who the chief executive of Finland was after the revolution.

The Parliament, controlled by social democrats, passed the so-called Power Act to give the highest authority to the Parliament. This was rejected by the Russian Provisional Government which decided to dissolve the Parliament.

New elections were conducted, in which right-wing parties won with a slim majority. Some social democrats refused to accept the result and still claimed that the dissolution of the parliament and thus the ensuing elections were extralegal.

The two nearly equally powerful political blocs, the right-wing parties and the social democratic party, were highly antagonized.

The October Revolution in Russia changed the geopolitical situation anew. Suddenly, the right-wing parties in Finland started to reconsider their decision to block the transfer of highest executive power from the Russian government to Finland, as the Bolsheviks took power in Russia.

Rather than acknowledge the authority of the Power Act of a few months earlier, the right-wing government declared independence on 6 December On 27 January , the official opening shots of the war were fired in two simultaneous events.

The government started to disarm the Russian forces in Pohjanmaa , and the Social Democratic Party staged a coup. This sparked the brief but bitter civil war.

The Whites , who were supported by Imperial Germany , prevailed over the Reds. Deep social and political enmity was sown between the Reds and Whites and would last until the Winter War and beyond; still, even nowadays, the civil war is an inherently sensitive, emotional topic.

The Finnish—Russian border was determined by the Treaty of Tartu in , largely following the historic border but granting Pechenga Finnish : Petsamo and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland.

Finnish democracy did not see any Soviet coup attempts and survived the anti-Communist Lapua Movement. The relationship between Finland and the Soviet Union was tense.

Army officers were trained in France, and relations with Western Europe and Sweden were strengthened.

In , the population was 3 million. Credit-based land reform was enacted after the civil war, increasing the proportion of capital-owning population.

This was followed by the Lapland War of —, when Finland fought retreating German forces in northern Finland. The treaties signed in and with the Soviet Union included Finnish obligations, restraints, and reparations—as well as further Finnish territorial concessions in addition to those in the Moscow Peace Treaty of Almost the whole population, some , people , fled these areas.

The former Finnish territory now constitutes part of Russia's Republic of Karelia. Finland was never occupied by Soviet forces and it retained its independence, but at a loss of about 93, soldiers.

Finland rejected Marshall aid , in apparent deference to Soviet desires. However, the United States provided secret development aid and helped the Social Democratic Party, in hopes of preserving Finland's independence.

Valmet was founded to create materials for war reparations. After the reparations had been paid off, Finland continued to trade with the Soviet Union in the framework of bilateral trade.

The average number of births per woman declined from a baby boom peak of 3. Officially claiming to be neutral , Finland lay in the grey zone between the Western countries and the Soviet Union.

This was extensively exploited by president Urho Kekkonen against his opponents. He maintained an effective monopoly on Soviet relations from on, which was crucial for his continued popularity.

In politics, there was a tendency of avoiding any policies and statements that could be interpreted as anti-Soviet. This phenomenon was given the name " Finlandization " by the West German press.

Despite close relations with the Soviet Union, Finland maintained a market economy. Various industries benefited from trade privileges with the Soviets, which explains the widespread support that pro-Soviet policies enjoyed among business interests in Finland.

Economic growth was rapid in the postwar era, and by Finland's GDP per capita was the 15th-highest in the world.

In the s and '80s, Finland built one of the most extensive welfare states in the world. In , President Urho Kekkonen's failing health forced him to retire after holding office for 25 years.

Finland reacted cautiously to the collapse of the Soviet Union, but swiftly began increasing integration with the West. On 21 September , Finland unilaterally declared the Paris Peace Treaty obsolete, following the German reunification decision nine days earlier.

Miscalculated macroeconomic decisions, a banking crisis , the collapse of its largest trading partner the Soviet Union , and a global economic downturn caused a deep early s recession in Finland.

The depression bottomed out in , and Finland saw steady economic growth for more than ten years. Financial and product market regulation were loosened.

Some state enterprises have been privatized and there have been some modest tax cuts. The Finnish Lakeland is the area with the most lakes in the country; many of the major cities in the area, most notably Tampere , Jyväskylä and Kuopio , are located in the immediate vicinity of the large lakes.

Much of the geography of Finland is a result of the Ice Age. The glaciers were thicker and lasted longer in Fennoscandia compared with the rest of Europe.

Their eroding effects have left the Finnish landscape mostly flat with few hills and fewer mountains. The retreating glaciers have left the land with morainic deposits in formations of eskers.

These are ridges of stratified gravel and sand, running northwest to southeast, where the ancient edge of the glacier once lay.

Among the biggest of these are the three Salpausselkä ridges that run across southern Finland. Having been compressed under the enormous weight of the glaciers, terrain in Finland is rising due to the post-glacial rebound.

As a result, the old sea bottom turns little by little into dry land: the surface area of the country is expanding by about 7 square kilometres 2.

The landscape is covered mostly by coniferous taiga forests and fens , with little cultivated land. The forest consists of pine , spruce , birch , and other species.

The most common type of rock is granite. It is a ubiquitous part of the scenery, visible wherever there is no soil cover. Moraine or till is the most common type of soil, covered by a thin layer of humus of biological origin.

Podzol profile development is seen in most forest soils except where drainage is poor. Gleysols and peat bogs occupy poorly drained areas. Phytogeographically , Finland is shared between the Arctic, central European, and northern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom.

According to the WWF , the territory of Finland can be subdivided into three ecoregions : the Scandinavian and Russian taiga , Sarmatic mixed forests , and Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands.

Taiga covers most of Finland from northern regions of southern provinces to the north of Lapland. On the southwestern coast, south of the Helsinki- Rauma line, forests are characterized by mixed forests, that are more typical in the Baltic region.

In the extreme north of Finland, near the tree line and Arctic Ocean, Montane Birch forests are common. Similarly, Finland has a diverse and extensive range of fauna.

There are at least sixty native mammalian species, breeding bird species, over 70 fish species, and 11 reptile and frog species present today, many migrating from neighboring countries thousands of years ago.

Large and widely recognized wildlife mammals found in Finland are the brown bear the national animal , gray wolf , wolverine , and elk.

Three of the more striking birds are the whooper swan , a large European swan and the national bird of Finland; the Western capercaillie , a large, black-plumaged member of the grouse family; and the Eurasian eagle-owl.

The latter is considered an indicator of old-growth forest connectivity, and has been declining because of landscape fragmentation. Atlantic salmon remains the favourite of fly rod enthusiasts.

The endangered Saimaa ringed seal , one of only three lake seal species in the world, exists only in the Saimaa lake system of southeastern Finland, down to only seals today.

The main factor influencing Finland's climate is the country's geographical position between the 60th and 70th northern parallels in the Eurasian continent's coastal zone.

In the Köppen climate classification , the whole of Finland lies in the boreal zone , characterized by warm summers and freezing winters. Within the country, the temperateness varies considerably between the southern coastal regions and the extreme north, showing characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate.

Finland is near enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream. The Gulf Stream combines with the moderating effects of the Baltic Sea and numerous inland lakes to explain the unusually warm climate compared with other regions that share the same latitude , such as Alaska , Siberia , and southern Greenland.

In northern Finland, particularly in Lapland, the winters are long and cold, while the summers are relatively warm but short. The winter of the north lasts for about days with permanent snow cover from about mid-October to early May.

The Finnish climate is suitable for cereal farming only in the southernmost regions, while the northern regions are suitable for animal husbandry.

A quarter of Finland's territory lies within the Arctic Circle and the midnight sun can be experienced for more days the farther north one travels.

At Finland's northernmost point, the sun does not set for 73 consecutive days during summer, and does not rise at all for 51 days during winter.

Finland consists of 19 regions , called maakunta in Finnish and landskap in Swedish. The regions are governed by regional councils which serve as forums of cooperation for the municipalities of a region.

The main tasks of the regions are regional planning and development of enterprise and education. In addition, the public health services are usually organized on the basis of regions.

Currently, the only region where a popular election is held for the council is Kainuu. Other regional councils are elected by municipal councils, each municipality sending representatives in proportion to its population.

In addition to inter-municipal cooperation, which is the responsibility of regional councils, each region has a state Employment and Economic Development Centre which is responsible for the local administration of labour, agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and entrepreneurial affairs.

The Finnish Defence Forces regional offices are responsible for the regional defence preparations and for the administration of conscription within the region.

Regions represent dialectal, cultural, and economic variations better than the former provinces , which were purely administrative divisions of the central government.

Historically, regions are divisions of historical provinces of Finland , areas which represent dialects and culture more accurately.

The fundamental administrative divisions of the country are the municipalities , which may also call themselves towns or cities. They account for half of public spending.

Spending is financed by municipal income tax, state subsidies, and other revenue. As of [update] , there are municipalities, [23] and most have fewer than 6, residents.

In addition to municipalities, two intermediate levels are defined. Municipalities co-operate in seventy sub-regions and nineteen regions.

These are governed by the member municipalities and have only limited powers. Sami people have a semi-autonomous Sami native region in Lapland for issues on language and culture.

The figures are as of 31 January The capital region — comprising Helsinki , Vantaa , Espoo and Kauniainen — forms a continuous conurbation of over 1.

However, common administration is limited to voluntary cooperation of all municipalities, e. The Constitution of Finland defines the political system; Finland is a parliamentary republic within the framework of a representative democracy.

The Prime Minister is the country's most powerful person. The current version of the constitution was enacted on 1 March , and was amended on 1 March Citizens can run and vote in parliamentary, municipal, presidential and European Union elections.

Finland has had for most of its independence a semi-presidential system , but in the last few decades the powers of the President have been diminished.

In constitution amendments, which came into effect in or and also with a new drafted constitution of , amended in , the President's position has become primarily a ceremonial office.

However, the President still leads the nation's foreign politics together with the Council of State and is the commander-in-chief of the Defence Forces.

Direct, one- or two-stage elections are used to elect the president for a term of six years and for a maximum of two consecutive terms.

The current president is Sauli Niinistö ; he took office on 1 March Former presidents were K. Relander — , P. Mannerheim — , J.

The current president was elected from the ranks of the National Coalition Party for the first time since The presidency between and the present was instead held by a member of the Social Democratic Party or the Centre Party.

The member unicameral Parliament of Finland Finnish : Eduskunta , Swedish : Riksdag exercises supreme legislative authority in the country.

It may alter the constitution and ordinary laws, dismiss the cabinet, and override presidential vetoes. Its acts are not subject to judicial review; the constitutionality of new laws is assessed by the parliament's constitutional law committee.

The parliament is elected for a term of four years using the proportional D'Hondt method within a number of multi-seat constituencies through the most open list multi-member districts.

Various parliament committees listen to experts and prepare legislation. The speaker of the parliament is Anu Vehviläinen Centre Party.

Since universal suffrage was introduced in , the parliament has been dominated by the Centre Party former Agrarian Union , the National Coalition Party , and the Social Democrats.

Their lowest common total of MPs, , was reached in the elections. For a few decades after , the Communists were a strong fourth party.

Due to the electoral system of proportional representation, and the relative reluctance of voters to switch their support between parties, the relative strengths of the parties have commonly varied only slightly from one election to another.

However, there have been some long-term trends, such as the rise and fall of the Communists during the Cold War; the steady decline into insignificance of the Liberals and its predecessors from to ; and the rise of the Green League since In the elections, the Finns Party achieved exceptional success, increasing its representation from 5 to 39 seats, surpassing the Centre Party.

The Parliament can be dissolved by a recommendation of the Prime Minister, endorsed by the President. This procedure has never been used, although the parliament was dissolved eight times under the pre constitution, when this action was the sole prerogative of the president.

After the parliamentary elections on 19 April , the seats were divided among eight parties as follows: [91]. After parliamentary elections, the parties negotiate among themselves on forming a new cabinet the Finnish Government , which then has to be approved by a simple majority vote in the parliament.

The cabinet can be dismissed by a parliamentary vote of no confidence, although this rarely happens the last time in , as the parties represented in the cabinet usually make up a majority in the parliament.

The cabinet exercises most executive powers, and originates most of the bills that the parliament then debates and votes on.

It is headed by the Prime Minister of Finland , and consists of him or her, of other ministers, and of the Chancellor of Justice. Each minister heads his or her ministry, or, in some cases, has responsibility for a subset of a ministry's policy.

After the prime minister, the most powerful minister is the minister of finance. The incumbent Minister of Finance is Matti Vanhanen.

As no one party ever dominates the parliament, Finnish cabinets are multi-party coalitions. As a rule, the post of prime minister goes to the leader of the biggest party and that of the minister of finance to the leader of the second biggest.

The judicial system of Finland is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration.

Finnish law is codified and based on Swedish law and in a wider sense, civil law or Roman law. The court system for civil and criminal jurisdiction consists of local courts käräjäoikeus , tingsrätt , regional appellate courts hovioikeus , hovrätt , and the Supreme Court korkein oikeus , högsta domstolen.

The administrative branch of justice consists of administrative courts hallinto-oikeus , förvaltningsdomstol and the Supreme Administrative Court korkein hallinto-oikeus , högsta förvaltningsdomstolen.

In addition to the regular courts, there are a few special courts in certain branches of administration. There is also a High Court of Impeachment for criminal charges against certain high-ranking officeholders.

Some crime types are above average, notably the high homicide rate for Western Europe. Finland has successfully fought against government corruption, which was more common in the s and '80s.

In , Transparency International criticized the lack of transparency of the system of Finnish political finance. Nine Ministers of Government submitted incomplete funding reports and even more of the members of parliament.

The law includes no punishment of false funds reports of the elected politicians. According to the constitution, the president currently Sauli Niinistö leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government, except that the president has no role in EU affairs.

Finland has one of the world's most extensive welfare systems, one that guarantees decent living conditions for all residents: Finns, and non-citizens.

Since the s the social security has been cut back, but still the system is one of the most comprehensive in the world.

Created almost entirely during the first three decades after World War II, the social security system was an outgrowth of the traditional Nordic belief that the state was not inherently hostile to the well-being of its citizens, but could intervene benevolently on their behalf.

According to some social historians, the basis of this belief was a relatively benign history that had allowed the gradual emergence of a free and independent peasantry in the Nordic countries and had curtailed the dominance of the nobility and the subsequent formation of a powerful right wing.

Finland's history has been harsher than the histories of the other Nordic countries, but not harsh enough to bar the country from following their path of social development.

The Finnish Defence Forces consist of a cadre of professional soldiers mainly officers and technical personnel , currently serving conscripts, and a large reserve.

A universal male conscription is in place, under which all male Finnish nationals above 18 years of age serve for 6 to 12 months of armed service or 12 months of civilian non-armed service.

Approximately women choose voluntary military service every year. The army consists of a highly mobile field army backed up by local defence units.

The army defends the national territory and its military strategy employs the use of the heavily forested terrain and numerous lakes to wear down an aggressor, instead of attempting to hold the attacking army on the frontier.

Finnish defence expenditure per capita is one of the highest in the European Union. The term total means that all sectors of the government and economy are involved in the defence planning.

The armed forces are under the command of the Chief of Defence currently General Jarmo Lindberg , who is directly subordinate to the president in matters related to military command.

The branches of the military are the army , the navy , and the air force. The border guard is under the Ministry of the Interior but can be incorporated into the Defence Forces when required for defence readiness.

At first he was reported be a casual Arabic student, however only later it was published that his studies were about jihadists, terrorism, and that he was employed by the military.

In May , Finnish Military sent nearly one million letters to all relevant males in the country, informing them about their roles in the war effort.

It was globally speculated that Finland was preparing for war—however Finland claimed that this was a standard procedure, yet something never done before in Finnish history.

The economy of Finland has a per capita output equal to that of other European economies such as those of France, Germany, Belgium , or the UK.

Primary production represents 2. The gross domestic product peaked in As of [update] , the country's economy is at the level.

Finland has significant timber, mineral iron , chromium , copper , nickel , and gold , and freshwater resources. Knowledge-intensive services have also resulted in the smallest and slow-growth sectors — especially agriculture and low-technology manufacturing — being ranked the second largest after Ireland.

Finland is highly integrated into the global economy, and international trade produces one third of GDP. Trade policy is managed by the European Union, where Finland has traditionally been among the free trade supporters, except for agricultural policy.

Finland's climate and soils make growing crops a particular challenge. Annual precipitation is usually sufficient, but it occurs almost exclusively during the winter months, making summer droughts a constant threat.

In response to the climate, farmers have relied on quick-ripening and frost-resistant varieties of crops, and they have cultivated south-facing slopes as well as richer bottomlands to ensure production even in years with summer frosts.

Most farmland was originally either forest or swamp, and the soil has usually required treatment with lime and years of cultivation to neutralize excess acid and to improve fertility.

Irrigation has generally not been necessary, but drainage systems are often needed to remove excess water. Finland's agriculture has been efficient and productive—at least when compared with farming in other European countries.

Forests play a key role in the country's economy, making it one of the world's leading wood producers and providing raw materials at competitive prices for the crucial wood-processing industries.

As in agriculture, the government has long played a leading role in forestry, regulating tree cutting, sponsoring technical improvements, and establishing long-term plans to ensure that the country's forests continue to supply the wood-processing industries.

To maintain the country's comparative advantage in forest products, Finnish authorities moved to raise lumber output toward the country's ecological limits.

In , the government published the Forest plan, drawn up by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Private sector employees amount to 1.

Gender segregation between male-dominated professions and female-dominated professions is higher than in the US. The unemployment rate was 9. As of [update] , 2.

The average size is 2. Residential buildings total 1. There are 2. However, second quarter of saw a slow economic growth. Unemployment rate fell to a near one-decade low in June, marking private consumption growth much higher.

Finland has the highest concentration of cooperatives relative to its population. As of [update] , Finland has roughly the lowest industrial electricity prices in the EU equal to France.

In , the energy market was around 90 terawatt hours and the peak demand around 15 gigawatts in winter. This means that the energy consumption per capita is around 7.

The fifth AREVA - Siemens -built reactor — the world's largest at MWe and a focal point of Europe's nuclear industry — has faced many delays and is currently scheduled to be operational by —, a decade after the original planned opening.

The Onkalo spent nuclear fuel repository is currently under construction at the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant in the municipality of Eurajoki , on the west coast of Finland, by the company Posiva.

The main international passenger gateway is Helsinki Airport , which handled about 17 million passengers in Oulu Airport is the second largest, whilst another 25 airports have scheduled passenger services.

Helsinki has an optimal location for great circle i. These services are branded as "Allegro" trains. The journey from Helsinki to Saint Petersburg takes only three and a half hours.

A high-speed rail line is planned between Helsinki and Turku , with a line from the capital to Tampere also proposed.

The majority of international cargo shipments are handled at ports. There is passenger traffic from Helsinki and Turku, which have ferry connections to Tallinn , Mariehamn , Stockholm and Travemünde.

The Helsinki-Tallinn route — one of the busiest passenger sea routes in the world — has also been served by a helicopter line, and the Helsinki-Tallinn Tunnel has been proposed to provide railway services between the two cities.

Initially, most of the economic development was based on two broad groups of export-led industries, the "metal industry" metalliteollisuus and "forest industry" metsäteollisuus.

The "metal industry" includes shipbuilding, metalworking, the automotive industry , engineered products such as motors and electronics , and production of metals and alloys including steel , copper and chromium.

Many of the world's biggest cruise ships , including MS Freedom of the Seas and the Oasis of the Seas have been built in Finnish shipyards.

However, in recent decades, the Finnish economy has diversified, with companies expanding into fields such as electronics Nokia , metrology Vaisala , petroleum Neste , and video games Rovio Entertainment , and is no longer dominated by the two sectors of metal and forest industry.

Likewise, the structure has changed, with the service sector growing, with manufacturing declining in importance; agriculture remains a minor part.

Despite this, production for export is still more prominent than in Western Europe, thus making Finland possibly more vulnerable to global economic trends.

In , the Finnish economy was estimated to consist of approximately 2. In , Finland was ranked 20th on the ease of doing business index , among jurisdictions.

Finnish politicians have often emulated other Nordics and the Nordic model. The level of protection in commodity trade has been low, except for agricultural products.

Finland has top levels of economic freedom in many areas. In the Business competitiveness index — Finland ranked third in the world.

Economists attribute much growth to reforms in the product markets. Nordic countries were pioneers in liberalizing energy, postal, and other markets in Europe.

This indicates exceptional ease in cross-border trading 5th , contract enforcement 7th , business closure 5th , tax payment 83rd , and low worker hardship th.

Finnish law forces all workers to obey the national contracts that are drafted every few years for each profession and seniority level.

A lack of a national agreement in an industry is considered an exception. Commercial cruises between major coastal and port cities in the Baltic region, including Helsinki, Turku , Mariehamn , Tallinn , Stockholm , and Travemünde , play a significant role in the local tourism industry.

By passenger counts, the Port of Helsinki is the busiest port in the world. Lapland has the highest tourism consumption of any Finnish region. Lapland is so far north that the aurora borealis , fluorescence in the high atmosphere due to solar wind , is seen regularly in the fall, winter, and spring.

Tourist attractions in Finland include the natural landscape found throughout the country as well as urban attractions.

Finland is covered with thick pine forests, rolling hills, and lakes. Finland contains 40 national parks , from the Southern shores of the Gulf of Finland to the high fells of Lapland.

Outdoor activities range from Nordic skiing , golf, fishing, yachting , lake cruises, hiking, and kayaking , among many others.

Bird-watching is popular for those fond of avifauna, however hunting is also popular. Elk and hare are common game in Finland. Finland also has urbanised regions with many cultural events and activities.

Tourist attractions in Helsinki include the Helsinki Cathedral and the Suomenlinna sea fortress. Olavinlinna in Savonlinna hosts the annual Savonlinna Opera Festival , [] and the medieval milieus of the cities of Turku , Rauma and Porvoo also attract curious spectators.

Population by ethnic background in [] []. The population of Finland is currently about 5. This is the third-lowest population density of any European country, behind those of Norway and Iceland , and the lowest population density in the EU.

Finland's population has always been concentrated in the southern parts of the country, a phenomenon that became even more pronounced during 20th-century urbanisation.

Two of the three largest cities in Finland are situated in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area — Helsinki and Espoo.

Tampere holds the third place while also Helsinki-neighbouring Vantaa is the fourth. As of [update] , there were , people with a foreign background living in Finland 7.

If they are born in Finland and cannot get citizenship of any other country, they become citizens. The immigrant population is growing.

The Helsinki region alone will have , foreign speakers, up by , Finnish and Swedish are the official languages of Finland. The language is one of only four official EU languages not of Indo-European origin.

Finnish is closely related to Karelian and Estonian and more remotely to the Sami languages and Hungarian. Swedish is the native language of 5.

The Nordic languages and Karelian are also specially treated in some contexts. Finnish Romani is spoken by some 5,—6, people; it and Finnish Sign Language are also recognized in the constitution.

There are two sign languages: Finnish Sign Language, spoken natively by 4,—5, people, [] and Finland-Swedish Sign Language , spoken natively by about people.

Tatar is spoken by a Finnish Tatar minority of about people whose ancestors moved to Finland mainly during Russian rule from the s to the s.

The Sami language has an official language status in the north, in Lapland or in northern Lapland, where the Sami people predominate, numbering around 7, [] and recognized as an indigenous people.

About a quarter of them speak a Sami language as their mother tongue. The rights of minority groups in particular Sami , Swedish speakers , and Romani people are protected by the constitution.

The largest immigrant languages are Russian 1. People can only register one language and so bilingual or multilingual language users' language competencies are not properly included.

A citizen of Finland that speaks bilingually Finnish and Swedish will often be registered as a Finnish only speaker in this system.

Similarly "old domestic language" is a category applied to some languages and not others for political not linguistic reasons, for example Russian.

The Passamaquoddy Native American tribe, now located in the state of Maine and in Canada , used an elongated swastika on their war canoes in the American colonial period as well as later.

Before the s, the symbol for the 45th Infantry Division of the United States Army was a red diamond with a yellow swastika, a tribute to the large Native American population in the southwestern United States.

It was later replaced with a thunderbird symbol. A swastika shape is a symbol in the culture of the Kuna people of Kuna Yala , Panama.

In Kuna tradition it symbolizes the octopus that created the world, its tentacles pointing to the four cardinal points. In February , the Kuna revolted vigorously against Panamanian suppression of their culture, and in they assumed autonomy.

The flag they adopted at that time is based on the swastika shape, and remains the official flag of Kuna Yala. A number of variations on the flag have been used over the years: red top and bottom bands instead of orange were previously used, and in a ring representing the traditional Kuna nose-ring was added to the center of the flag to distance it from the symbol of the Nazi party.

The town of Swastika, Ontario, Canada , is named after the symbol. From to , the K-R-I-T automobile, manufactured in Detroit, Michigan, used a right-facing swastika as their trademark.

Chief William Neptune of the Passamaquoddy , wearing a headdress and outfit adorned with swastikas. Chilocco Indian Agricultural School basketball team in Fernie Swastikas women's hockey team, The Buffum tool company of Louisiana used the swastika as its trademark.

It went out of business in the s. The swastika was widely used in Europe at the start of the 20th century. It symbolized many things to the Europeans, with the most common symbolism being of good luck and auspiciousness.

This insignia was used on the party's flag, badge, and armband. In his work Mein Kampf , Adolf Hitler writes that: "I myself, meanwhile, after innumerable attempts, had laid down a final form; a flag with a red background, a white disk, and a black Hakenkreuz in the middle.

After long trials I also found a definite proportion between the size of the flag and the size of the white disk, as well as the shape and thickness of the Hakenkreuz.

When Hitler created a flag for the Nazi Party, he sought to incorporate both the Hakenkreuz and "those revered colors expressive of our homage to the glorious past and which once brought so much honor to the German nation".

Red, white, and black were the colors of the flag of the old German Empire. He also stated: "As National Socialists, we see our program in our flag.

In red, we see the social idea of the movement; in white, the nationalistic idea; in the Hakenkreuz, the mission of the struggle for the victory of the Aryan man, and, by the same token, the victory of the idea of creative work.

The swastika was also understood as "the symbol of the creating, effecting life" das Symbol des schaffenden, wirkenden Lebens and as "race emblem of Germanism" Rasseabzeichen des Germanentums.

The concept of racial hygiene was an ideology central to Nazism, though it is scientific racism. Following many other writers, the German nationalist poet Guido von List believed it was a uniquely Aryan symbol.

Before the Nazis, the swastika was already in use as a symbol of German völkisch nationalist movements Völkische Bewegung. During World War II it was common to use small swastikas to mark air-to-air victories on the sides of Allied aircraft, and at least one British fighter pilot inscribed a swastika in his logbook for each German plane he shot down.

Because of its use by Nazi Germany, the swastika since the s has been largely associated with Nazism. In the aftermath of World War II it has been considered a symbol of hate in the West, [] and of white supremacy in many Western countries.

As a result, all use of it, or its use as a Nazi or hate symbol, is prohibited in some countries, including Germany. Because of the stigma attached to the symbol, many buildings that have used the symbol as decoration have had the symbol removed.

Black , the highest courts have ruled that the local governments can prohibit the use of swastika along with other symbols such as cross burning, if the intent of the use is to intimidate others.

The German and Austrian postwar criminal code makes the public showing of the Hakenkreuz the swastika , the sig rune , the Celtic cross specifically the variations used by white power activists , the wolfsangel , the odal rune and the Totenkopf skull illegal, except for scholarly reasons.

It is also censored from the reprints of s railway timetables published by the Reichsbahn. The swastikas on Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain temples are exempt, as religious symbols cannot be banned in Germany.

A controversy was stirred by the decision of several police departments to begin inquiries against anti-fascists.

In the Stade police department started an inquiry against anti-fascist youths using a placard depicting a person dumping a swastika into a trashcan.

The placard was displayed in opposition to the campaign of right-wing nationalist parties for local elections.

On Friday, 17 March , a member of the Bundestag , Claudia Roth reported herself to the German police for displaying a crossed-out swastika in multiple demonstrations against Neo-Nazis , and subsequently got the Bundestag to suspend her immunity from prosecution.

She intended to show the absurdity of charging anti-fascists with using fascist symbols: "We don't need prosecution of non-violent young people engaging against right-wing extremism.

On 9 August , Germany lifted the ban on the usage of swastikas and other Nazi symbols in video games. The European Union's Executive Commission proposed a European Union-wide anti-racism law in , but European Union states failed to agree on the balance between prohibiting racism and freedom of expression.

In early , while Germany held the European Union presidency, Berlin proposed that the European Union should follow German Criminal Law and criminalize the denial of the Holocaust and the display of Nazi symbols including the swastika, which is based on the Ban on the Symbols of Unconstitutional Organizations Act.

This led to an opposition campaign by Hindu groups across Europe against a ban on the swastika. They pointed out that the swastika has been around for 5, years as a symbol of peace.

The public display of Nazi -era German flags or any other flags is protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution , which guarantees the right to freedom of speech.

As with many neo-Nazi groups across the world, the American Nazi Party used the swastika as part of its flag before its first dissolution in The symbol was chosen by the organization's founder, George L.

The swastika, in various iconographic forms, is one of the hate symbols identified in use as graffiti in US schools, and is described as such in a US Department of Education document, "Responding to Hate at School: A Guide for Teachers, Counselors and Administrators", edited by Jim Carnes, which provides advice to educators on how to support students targeted by such hate symbols and address hate graffiti.

Examples given show that it is often used alongside other white supremacist symbols, such as those of the Ku Klux Klan , and note a "three-bladed" variation used by skinheads , white supremacists, and "some South African extremist groups".

In the Anti-Defamation League ADL downgraded the swastika from its status as a Jewish hate symbol, saying "We know that the swastika has, for some, lost its meaning as the primary symbol of Nazism and instead become a more generalized symbol of hate".

In , Microsoft officially spoke out against use of the swastika by players of the first-person shooter Call of Duty: Black Ops.

In Black Ops , players are allowed to customize their name tags to represent, essentially, whatever they want. The swastika can be created and used, but Stephen Toulouse , director of Xbox Live policy and enforcement, stated that players with the symbol on their name tag will be banned if someone reports it as inappropriate from Xbox Live.

The swastika has been replaced by a stylized Greek cross. In , authorities in Tajikistan called for the widespread adoption of the swastika as a national symbol.

President Emomali Rahmonov declared the swastika an Aryan symbol, and "the year of Aryan culture", which would be a time to "study and popularize Aryan contributions to the history of the world civilization, raise a new generation of Tajiks with the spirit of national self-determination, and develop deeper ties with other ethnicities and cultures".

In East Asia, the swastika is prevalent in Buddhist monasteries and communities. It is commonly found in Buddhist temples, religious artefacts, texts related to Buddhism and schools founded by Buddhist religious groups.

It also appears as a design or motif singularly or woven into a pattern on textiles, architecture and various decorative objects as a symbol of luck and good fortune.

The icon is also found as a sacred symbol in the Bon tradition, but in the left facing mode. Many Chinese religions make use of the swastika symbol, including Guiyidao and Shanrendao.

All of them show the swastika in their logos. Among the predominantly Hindu population of Bali , in Indonesia , the swastika is common in temples, homes and public spaces.

Similarly, the swastika is a common icon associated with Buddha's footprints in Theravada Buddhist communities of Myanmar, Thailand and Cambodia.

In Japan, the swastika is also used as a map symbol and is designated by the Survey Act and related Japanese governmental rules to denote a Buddhist temple.

The city of Hirosaki in Aomori Prefecture designates this symbol as its official flag, which stemmed from its use in the emblem of the Tsugaru clan , the lords of Hirosaki Domain during the Edo period.

Temples, businesses and other organisations, such as the Buddhist libraries, Ahmedabad Stock Exchange and the Nepal Chamber of Commerce, [] use the swastika in reliefs or logos.

The swastika remains prominent in Hindu ceremonies such as weddings. The left facing sauwastika symbol is found in tantric rituals. Musaeus College in Colombo, Sri Lanka , a Buddhist girls' school, has a left facing swastika in their school logo.

In India, Swastik and Swastika , with their spelling variants, are first names for males and females respectively, for instance with Swastika Mukherjee.

The Seal of Bihar contains two swastikas. Since the end of the 20th century, and through the early 21st century, confusion and controversy has occurred when consumer goods bearing the traditional Jain, Buddhist, or Hindu symbols have been exported to the West, notably to North America and Europe, and have been interpreted by consumers as bearing a Nazi symbol.

This has resulted in several such products having been boycotted or pulled from shelves. The boy's parents misinterpreted the symbol as the right-facing Nazi swastika and filed a complaint to the manufacturer.

Nintendo of America announced that the cards would be discontinued, explaining that what was acceptable in one culture was not necessarily so in another; their action was welcomed by the Anti-Defamation League who recognised that there was no intention to offend, but said that international commerce meant that, "Isolating [the Swastika] in Asia would just create more problems.

In , Christmas crackers containing plastic toy red pandas sporting swastikas were pulled from shelves after complaints from consumers in Canada.

The manufacturer, based in China, said the symbol was presented in a traditional sense and not as a reference to the Nazis, and apologized to the customers for the cross-cultural mixup.

Besides its use as a religious symbol in Hinduism , Buddhism and Jainism , which can be traced back to pre-modern traditions, the swastika is also used by adherents of a large number of new religious movements which were established in the modern period.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Swastika disambiguation. Ashanti nkontim. Aztec swastika. Hindu Swastikas. Bengali Hindu swastika.

A swastika is typical in Hindu temples. Goa Lawah Hindu temple entrance in Bali , Indonesia. A Hindu temple in Rajasthan , India.

Main article: Swastika Germanic Iron Age. Bashkirs symbol of the sun and fertility. Ancient Roman mosaics of La Olmeda , Spain.

Swastika on a Roman mosaic in Veli Brijun , Croatia. Ashanti weight in Africa. Nkontim adinkra symbol representing loyalty and readiness to serve.

Carved fretwork forming a swastika in the window of a Lalibela rock-hewn church in Ethiopia. Main article: Western use of the swastika in the early 20th century.

The flag of the Finnish Air Force Academy. The Lotta Svärd emblem designed by Eric Wasström in Old and new versions of the 45th Infantry Division.

Further information: Nazi symbolism and Occultism in Nazism. Divisional insignia of Further information: Strafgesetzbuch section 86a.

Swastika on a temple in Korea left, or top, on mobile browsers , and in Taiwan right, or bottom. Hinduism portal India portal Religion portal Germany portal Asia portal.

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Retrieved 8 June Buddha's footprints were said to be swastikas. National University of Singapore Press. On the Meaning and Origin of the Fylfot and Swastika.

Nichols and Sons. The Handbook of Tibetan Buddhist Symbols. Serindia Publications, Inc. Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary.

Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 26 April Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. Princeton University Press.

Etymology Dictionary. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary , s. Retrieved 10 June Philosophy East and West. Grammatical Literature. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online ed. Retrieved 9 February Indian Country Today Media Network. Archived from the original on 11 August Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism.

Shambhala Press. University of California Press. Flags of the World. Unicode, Inc. Symbols of Sacred Science. Sophia Perennis. Ljubljana: Slovene Anthropological Society.

XIX 2. Ballantine Books. Archived from the original on 8 September Parker and Company. The Flight of the Wild Gander.

BBC News. Retrieved 14 February — via www. Retrieved 1 June Demoscope Weekly. Retrieved 5 July Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 16 January Retrieved Tutkimus erään pohjoisnorjalaisen vähemmistön identiteetistä.

Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seuran Toimituksia, Retrieved 26 February Embassy of Finland, Madrid. Suomi-Espanja Seura.

Archived from the original on 27 February Embassy of Finland, Tallinn. Embassy of Finland, Rome. Embassy of Finland, Bern. Embassy of Finland, Copenhagen.

Embassy of Finland, Brussels. Embassy of Finland, The Hague. Embassy of Finland, Athens. Embassy of Finland, Bangkok.

Embassy - Embassy of Finland, Abu Dhabi. Embassy of Finland, Beijing. Consulate General of Finland, Hong Kong. Embassy of Finland, Vienna. Embassy of Finland, Warsaw.

Embassy of Finland, Lisbon. Embassy of Finland, Tel Aviv. Embassy of Finland, Singapore. Embassy of Finland, Tokyo. Retrieved 25 December Embassy of Finland, Nicosia.

Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Tampere University of Technology.

Scandinavian Journal of History. Retrieved 1 August Archived from the original on 16 February The term "Sweden Finns" corresponds to this naming method.

Immigrants to the U. The term "Finnish Swedes" corresponds to this more modern naming method that is increasingly used in most countries and languages because it emphasises the status as full and equal citizens of the new country while providing information about cultural roots.

For more information about these different naming methods see Swedish-speaking Finns. Other possible modern terms are "Finnish ethnic minority in Sweden" and "Finnish immigrants".

These may be preferable because they make a clear distinction between these two very different population groups for which use of a single term is questionable and because "Finnish Swedes" is often used like "Finland Swedes" to mean "Swedish-speaking Finns".

It should perhaps also be pointed out that many Finnish and Swedish speakers are unaware that the English word "Finn" elsewhere than in this article usually means "a native or inhabitant of Finland" "Finn".

American Heritage Dictionary. Archived from the original on 27 October — via Bartleby. Concise Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford Dictionaries.

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From the book Hänninen, K. Kansakoulun maantieto ja kotiseutuoppi yksiopettajaisia kouluja varten. The excerpt from a school book shows the generalized concept.

Lukukirja alimmaisille oppilaitoksille Suomessa. Toinen jakso. Johannes Bäckvall. Archived from the original on 5 April Retrieved 8 August European Journal of Human Genetics.

Bibcode : PLoSO The American Journal of Human Genetics. Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 17 August

open opportunities for Finnish airlines to obtain new flight rights to. China. Finavia is also marketing Finland to Asian customers as an interesting destination. Bild von Masu Asian Bistro, Helsinki: Masu Asian Bistro and Bar, Eteläesplanadi 22, Helsinki, Finland - Schauen Sie sich authentische Fotos und Videos. - SEN CHAY // Asian Restaurant // VEGETARIAN-VEGAN Finland, a soon year old treasure within Scandinavia, is the hot spot for. The Finnish collection amounts to approximately 13, volumes and consists predominantly of printed materials. The annual increase has amounted to around​. Region Kotka-Hamina Finland. Search form. Search this site. de. Languages. 简体中文; English · Suomi · Deutsch · Русский; Svenska. Main menu. Liebe. Swastikas also appear in art and architecture during the Renaissance and Baroque era. Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Sex svensk film. Retrieved 16 Free hd porn categories Retrieved 9 January On Friday, 17 MarchAnimes desnudas member of the BundestagClaudia Roth reported herself to the German police for displaying a crossed-out swastika in multiple demonstrations against Neo-Nazisand subsequently Roulette vid chat the Bundestag to suspend her immunity from prosecution. Culture Shock! In its town hall the Treaty of Westphalia was signed inending the Thirty Years' War that involved the major European powers of Something borrowed something blew kelsi monroe fuck time. There is also drop down menus with Deutch and French and scientific names. Year 3 winter at MSB, Münster. Living Muschis mit dildo Münster. The town Schwule pornos gratis founded in the 8th Carrie preston nude AD around a monastery. Pictures Wife sucking stranger the Week, click on to see larger: Buffe the body porn Pictures of Mammals Lintukuvaajan käsikirja. Bitte melden Sie sich mit Ihrer zentralen Benutzerkennung Javsubhd. If you are unsure whom to contact, please send us a mail and we will Finland asian you the email address of our contact person. Today, it is the cultural capital of Ass porn. Webshop References Pictures of Mammals. Over hundred Tinder girls xxx mp3 have been added, Geile muschi vögeln keep voices on, when open folders Exhentai Species. Just like the innumerable amount of Nackte mädchen hintern, or Leezen as they are called locally - with around Now we have own page for Mammals. CHE University Ranking. Cookies akzeptieren.

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FINNISH CHINESE COUPLE Q \u0026 A 中芬跨国恋夫妻走心问答❤️ HOW WE MET ? CULTURAL DIFFERENCES ? [中文字幕] Retrieved 10 May Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. As a matter of Kajal agarwal nude, at this time the Finnish peasantry was outraged by the actions of their elite and almost exclusively supported Gustav's actions against the conspirators. Among various tribes, the swastika carries different meanings. This emigration peaked Misa yuki and has been declining since. Archived from the original on Tranny cum hands free videos October Retrieved 3 January The WhitesMen with pussy videos were supported by Imperial Germany Sext online with strangers, prevailed over the Reds.

BBC News Magazine. Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Law and Human Behavior.

American Psychological Association. Retrieved 8 June Buddha's footprints were said to be swastikas. National University of Singapore Press.

On the Meaning and Origin of the Fylfot and Swastika. Nichols and Sons. The Handbook of Tibetan Buddhist Symbols. Serindia Publications, Inc.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 26 April Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization.

Princeton University Press. Etymology Dictionary. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary , s. Retrieved 10 June Philosophy East and West. Grammatical Literature.

Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online ed. Retrieved 9 February Indian Country Today Media Network. Archived from the original on 11 August Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism.

Shambhala Press. University of California Press. Flags of the World. Unicode, Inc. Symbols of Sacred Science. Sophia Perennis.

Ljubljana: Slovene Anthropological Society. XIX 2. Ballantine Books. Archived from the original on 8 September Parker and Company.

The Flight of the Wild Gander. BBC News. Retrieved 14 February — via www. Nadeau Lee, Jonathan H. Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife.

Retrieved 21 March The Illyrians: history and culture. Noyes Press. Retrieved 14 February — via Google Books.

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NUS Press. Archived from the original on 19 April Archived from the original on 5 February Retrieved 17 February Spiritual Art and Art Education.

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Oldtidens Ansigt: Faces of the Past , p. O Bogach i ludziach. Practice and theory of Slavic Heathenism ] in Polish.

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Moskow: Nauka. Racist Extremism in Central and Eastern Europe. Retrieved 24 March British Museum. Archived from the original on 24 March Retrieved 2 March Ir Indo, Vigo.

The Archaeology of Greece , p. Labyrinth Enterprises. The Area of Bristol in Roman Times. II, p. Wilson The swastika, the earlist known symbol and its migrations , pp.

Quite a different version of the Celtic triskelion, and perhaps the most common pre-Christian symbolism found throughout Armenian cultural tradition, is the round clockwise occasionally counter-clockwise whirling sun-like spiral fixed at a centre — the Armenian symbol of eternity.

Mehr, M. She viewed a tall building with spires and circular windows along the top of the walls. It was engraved with sun stones, a typical symbol of eternity in ancient Armenian architecture.

The Open Court. Open Court Publishing Company. Archived from the original on 31 August Route 66 News. Retrieved 5 September Archived from the original on 12 February Retrieved 11 February Think Tank.

The New York Times. Retrieved 7 May Retrieved 1 May Archived from the original on 21 August Retrieved 19 June The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 20 May Retrieved 3 October Come here to me!

Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 2 July Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 3 July The Symbolism of the Cross.

Retrieved 8 November Archived from the original on 30 July Retrieved 1 July Latvia in World War II. Fordham Univ Press. Retrieved 30 September Vitber in Latvian.

European Foundation of Human Rights. Washington, D. Retrieved 25 February Retrieved 20 February Retrieved 9 May The Vintage News.

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CRC Press. Archived from the original on 20 April Federal Court of Justice of Germany. Der Spiegel in German. The Telegraph. PC Gamer. Retrieved 12 November Ministry of Interior of Hungary.

Retrieved 21 February Any person who: a distributes, b uses before the public at large, or c publicly exhibits, the swastika, the insignia of the SS, the arrow cross, the sickle and hammer, the five-pointed red star or any symbol depicting the above so as to breach public peace — specifically in a way to offend the dignity of victims of totalitarian regimes and their right to sanctity — is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by custodial arrest, insofar as it did not result in a more serious criminal offense.

Retrieved 15 August McClatchy DC Bureau. Retrieved 18 August The two flags in recent years have been commonly seen together at white supremacist groups and gatherings.

Jewish Week. Retrieved 23 April Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 31 July The Escapist. Retrieved 9 August Telotte The Mouse Machine: Disney and Technology, p.

Retrieved 29 September Feathers of the Firebird Interview. Whereas, in Russian Ingria, there were both Lutheran and Orthodox Finns; the former were identified as Ingrian Finns while the latter were considered Izhorans or Karelians.

Baltic Finns are traditionally assumed to originate from two different populations speaking different dialects of Proto-Finnic kantasuomi.

Thus, a division into West Finnish and East Finnish is made. Further, there are subgroups, traditionally called heimo , [53] [54] according to dialects and local culture.

Although ostensibly based on late Iron Age settlement patterns, the heimos code: fin promoted to code: fi have been constructed according to dialect during the rise of nationalism in the 19th century.

The historical provinces of Finland can be seen to approximate some of these divisions. The regions of Finland , another remnant of a past governing system, can be seen to reflect a further manifestation of a local identity.

Today's urbanized Finns are not usually aware of the concept of 'heimo' nor do they typically identify with one except maybe Southern Ostrobothnians , although the use of dialects has experienced a recent revival.

Urbanized Finns do not necessarily know a particular dialect and tend to use standard Finnish or city slang but they may switch to a dialect when visiting their native area.

For the paternal and maternal genetic lineages of Finnish people and other peoples, see, e. Haplogroup U5 is estimated to be the oldest major mtDNA haplogroup in Europe and is found in the whole of Europe at a low frequency, but seems to be found in significantly higher levels among Finns, Estonians and the Sami people.

Variation within Finns is, according to fixation index F ST values, greater than anywhere else in Europe. The F ST values given here are actual values multiplied by 10, Males carrying the marker apparently moved northwards as the climate warmed in the Holocene , migrating in a counter-clockwise path through modern China and Mongolia , to eventually become concentrated in areas as far away as Fennoscandia and the Baltic.

N has been found in many samples of Neolithic human remains exhumed from northeastern China and the circum-Baikal area of southern Siberia. It is thus suggested that the ancestors of the Uralic-peoples and of the Turkic-Yakut peoples may have originated in this region about years ago.

Until the s, most linguists believed that Finns arrived in Finland as late as the first century AD. However, accumulating archaeological data suggests that the area of contemporary Finland had been inhabited continuously since the end of the ice age , contrary to the earlier idea that the area had experienced long uninhabited intervals.

The hunter-gatherer Sami were pushed into the more remote northern regions. A hugely controversial theory is so-called refugia.

This was proposed in the s by Kalevi Wiik , a professor emeritus of phonetics at the University of Turku. According to this theory, Finno-Ugric speakers spread north as the Ice age ended.

They populated central and northern Europe, while Basque speakers populated western Europe. As agriculture spread from the southeast into Europe, the Indo-European languages spread among the hunter-gatherers.

In this process, both the hunter-gatherers speaking Finno-Ugric and those speaking Basque learned how to cultivate land and became Indo-Europeanized.

The linguistic ancestors of modern Finns did not switch their language due to their isolated location. Wiik has not presented his theories in peer-reviewed scientific publications.

Many scholars in Finno-Ugrian studies have strongly criticized the theory. Professor Raimo Anttila, Petri Kallio and brothers Ante and Aslak Aikio have renounced Wiik's theory with strong words, hinting strongly to pseudoscience and even at right-wing political biases among Wiik's supporters.

The most heated debate took place in the Finnish journal Kaltio during autumn Since then, the debate has calmed, each side retaining their positions.

Media related to People of Finland at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Baltic Finnic ethnic group indigenous to Finland.

This article is about the Baltic Finnic ethnic group indigenous to Finland. For other uses, see Finn disambiguation.

For a specific analysis of the population of Finland, see Demographics of Finland. Main article: Baltic Finns. Main article: Sweden Finns.

More than , More than 10, More than 1, See also: History of Finland. See also: Finnish language. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 17 March Retrieved 24 February Central Intelligence Agency.

Retrieved 29 February Finns United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 23 July Statistics Sweden. Archived from the original on 5 March Retrieved 1 June Demoscope Weekly.

Retrieved 5 July Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 16 January Retrieved Tutkimus erään pohjoisnorjalaisen vähemmistön identiteetistä.

Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seuran Toimituksia, Retrieved 26 February Embassy of Finland, Madrid. Suomi-Espanja Seura.

Archived from the original on 27 February Embassy of Finland, Tallinn. Many of the world's biggest cruise ships , including MS Freedom of the Seas and the Oasis of the Seas have been built in Finnish shipyards.

However, in recent decades, the Finnish economy has diversified, with companies expanding into fields such as electronics Nokia , metrology Vaisala , petroleum Neste , and video games Rovio Entertainment , and is no longer dominated by the two sectors of metal and forest industry.

Likewise, the structure has changed, with the service sector growing, with manufacturing declining in importance; agriculture remains a minor part.

Despite this, production for export is still more prominent than in Western Europe, thus making Finland possibly more vulnerable to global economic trends.

In , the Finnish economy was estimated to consist of approximately 2. In , Finland was ranked 20th on the ease of doing business index , among jurisdictions.

Finnish politicians have often emulated other Nordics and the Nordic model. The level of protection in commodity trade has been low, except for agricultural products.

Finland has top levels of economic freedom in many areas. In the Business competitiveness index — Finland ranked third in the world.

Economists attribute much growth to reforms in the product markets. Nordic countries were pioneers in liberalizing energy, postal, and other markets in Europe.

This indicates exceptional ease in cross-border trading 5th , contract enforcement 7th , business closure 5th , tax payment 83rd , and low worker hardship th.

Finnish law forces all workers to obey the national contracts that are drafted every few years for each profession and seniority level.

A lack of a national agreement in an industry is considered an exception. Commercial cruises between major coastal and port cities in the Baltic region, including Helsinki, Turku , Mariehamn , Tallinn , Stockholm , and Travemünde , play a significant role in the local tourism industry.

By passenger counts, the Port of Helsinki is the busiest port in the world. Lapland has the highest tourism consumption of any Finnish region.

Lapland is so far north that the aurora borealis , fluorescence in the high atmosphere due to solar wind , is seen regularly in the fall, winter, and spring.

Tourist attractions in Finland include the natural landscape found throughout the country as well as urban attractions. Finland is covered with thick pine forests, rolling hills, and lakes.

Finland contains 40 national parks , from the Southern shores of the Gulf of Finland to the high fells of Lapland. Outdoor activities range from Nordic skiing , golf, fishing, yachting , lake cruises, hiking, and kayaking , among many others.

Bird-watching is popular for those fond of avifauna, however hunting is also popular. Elk and hare are common game in Finland.

Finland also has urbanised regions with many cultural events and activities. Tourist attractions in Helsinki include the Helsinki Cathedral and the Suomenlinna sea fortress.

Olavinlinna in Savonlinna hosts the annual Savonlinna Opera Festival , [] and the medieval milieus of the cities of Turku , Rauma and Porvoo also attract curious spectators.

Population by ethnic background in [] []. The population of Finland is currently about 5. This is the third-lowest population density of any European country, behind those of Norway and Iceland , and the lowest population density in the EU.

Finland's population has always been concentrated in the southern parts of the country, a phenomenon that became even more pronounced during 20th-century urbanisation.

Two of the three largest cities in Finland are situated in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area — Helsinki and Espoo. Tampere holds the third place while also Helsinki-neighbouring Vantaa is the fourth.

As of [update] , there were , people with a foreign background living in Finland 7. If they are born in Finland and cannot get citizenship of any other country, they become citizens.

The immigrant population is growing. The Helsinki region alone will have , foreign speakers, up by , Finnish and Swedish are the official languages of Finland.

The language is one of only four official EU languages not of Indo-European origin. Finnish is closely related to Karelian and Estonian and more remotely to the Sami languages and Hungarian.

Swedish is the native language of 5. The Nordic languages and Karelian are also specially treated in some contexts.

Finnish Romani is spoken by some 5,—6, people; it and Finnish Sign Language are also recognized in the constitution. There are two sign languages: Finnish Sign Language, spoken natively by 4,—5, people, [] and Finland-Swedish Sign Language , spoken natively by about people.

Tatar is spoken by a Finnish Tatar minority of about people whose ancestors moved to Finland mainly during Russian rule from the s to the s.

The Sami language has an official language status in the north, in Lapland or in northern Lapland, where the Sami people predominate, numbering around 7, [] and recognized as an indigenous people.

About a quarter of them speak a Sami language as their mother tongue. The rights of minority groups in particular Sami , Swedish speakers , and Romani people are protected by the constitution.

The largest immigrant languages are Russian 1. People can only register one language and so bilingual or multilingual language users' language competencies are not properly included.

A citizen of Finland that speaks bilingually Finnish and Swedish will often be registered as a Finnish only speaker in this system.

Similarly "old domestic language" is a category applied to some languages and not others for political not linguistic reasons, for example Russian.

Religions in Finland []. With 3. A small minority belongs to the Finnish Orthodox Church 1. Other Protestant denominations and the Roman Catholic Church are significantly smaller, as are the Jewish and other non-Christian communities totalling 1.

The Pew Research Center estimated the Muslim population at 2. In , Finland was the first Nordic country to disestablish its Evangelical Lutheran church by introducing the Church Act, followed by the Church of Sweden in Although the church still maintains a special relationship with the state, it is not described as a state religion in the Finnish Constitution or other laws passed by the Finnish Parliament.

As an autonomous Grand Duchy under Russia —, Finland retained the Lutheran State Church system, and a state church separate from Sweden, later named the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland , was established.

It was detached from the state as a separate judicial entity when the new church law came to force in After Finland had gained independence in , religious freedom was declared in the constitution of and a separate law on religious freedom in Through this arrangement, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland lost its position as a state church but gained a constitutional status as a national church alongside the Finnish Orthodox Church , whose position however is not codified in the constitution.

In , However, the majority of Lutherans attend church only for special occasions like Christmas ceremonies, weddings, and funerals. The Lutheran Church estimates that approximately 1.

Life expectancy has increased from 71 years for men and 79 years for women in to 79 years for men and 84 years for women in There has been a slight increase or no change in welfare and health inequalities between population groups in the 21st century.

Lifestyle-related diseases are on the rise. More than half a million Finns suffer from diabetes , type 1 diabetes being globally the most common in Finland.

Many children are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The number of musculoskeletal diseases and cancers are increasing, although the cancer prognosis has improved.

Allergies and dementia are also growing health problems in Finland. One of the most common reasons for work disability are due to mental disorders, in particular depression.

There are residents for each doctor. Most pre-tertiary education is arranged at municipal level. Even though many or most schools were started as private schools, today only around 3 percent of students are enrolled in private schools mostly specialist language and international schools , much less than in Sweden and most other developed countries.

Primary school takes normally six years and lower secondary school three years. Most schools are managed by municipal officials.

The flexible curriculum is set by the Ministry of Education and the Education Board. Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and After lower secondary school, graduates may either enter the workforce directly, or apply to trade schools or gymnasiums upper secondary schools.

Graduation from either formally qualifies for tertiary education. In tertiary education, two mostly separate and non-interoperating sectors are found: the profession-oriented polytechnics and the research-oriented universities.

Education is free and living expenses are to a large extent financed by the government through student benefits. Forest improvement, materials research, environmental sciences, neural networks, low-temperature physics, brain research, biotechnology, genetic technology, and communications showcase fields of study where Finnish researchers have had a significant impact.

Finland has a long tradition of adult education, and by the s nearly one million Finns were receiving some kind of instruction each year.

Forty percent of them did so for professional reasons. Adult education appeared in a number of forms, such as secondary evening schools, civic and workers' institutes, study centres, vocational course centres, and folk high schools.

Study centres allowed groups to follow study plans of their own making, with educational and financial assistance provided by the state.

Folk high schools are a distinctly Nordic institution. Originating in Denmark in the 19th century, folk high schools became common throughout the region.

Adults of all ages could stay at them for several weeks and take courses in subjects that ranged from handicrafts to economics. Finland is highly productive in scientific research.

In addition, 38 percent of Finland's population has a university or college degree , which is among the highest percentages in the world.

In a new law was enacted considering the universities, which defined that there are 16 of them as they were excluded from the public sector to be autonomous legal and financial entities, however enjoying special status in the legislation.

The change caused deep rooted discussions among the academic circles. English language is important in Finnish education.

There are a number of degree programs that are taught in English, which attracts thousands of degree and exchange students every year.

In December the OECD reported that Finnish fathers spend an average of eight minutes a day more with their school-aged children than mothers do.

Written Finnish could be said to have existed since Mikael Agricola translated the New Testament into Finnish during the Protestant Reformation , but few notable works of literature were written until the 19th century and the beginning of a Finnish national Romantic Movement.

This prompted Elias Lönnrot to collect Finnish and Karelian folk poetry and arrange and publish them as the Kalevala , the Finnish national epic. Many writers of the national awakening wrote in Swedish, such as the national poet Johan Ludvig Runeberg and Zachris Topelius.

After Finland became independent, there was a rise of modernist writers , most famously the Finnish-speaking Mika Waltari and Swedish-speaking Edith Södergran.

World War II prompted a return to more national interests in comparison to a more international line of thought, characterized by Väinö Linna.

The visual arts in Finland started to form their individual characteristics in the 19th century, when Romantic nationalism was rising in autonomic Finland.

The best known of Finnish painters, Akseli Gallen-Kallela , started painting in a naturalist style, but moved to national romanticism.

Finland's best-known sculptor of the 20th century was Wäinö Aaltonen , remembered for his monumental busts and sculptures. Finns have made major contributions to handicrafts and industrial design : among the internationally renowned figures are Timo Sarpaneva , Tapio Wirkkala and Ilmari Tapiovaara.

Finnish architecture is famous around the world, and has contributed significantly to several styles internationally, such as Jugendstil or Art Nouveau , Nordic Classicism and Functionalism.

Among the top 20th-century Finnish architects to gain international recognition are Eliel Saarinen and his son Eero Saarinen. Architect Alvar Aalto is regarded as among the most important 20th-century designers in the world; [] he helped bring functionalist architecture to Finland, but soon was a pioneer in its development towards an organic style.

Much of Finland's classical music is influenced by traditional Karelian melodies and lyrics, as comprised in the Kalevala.

Karelian culture is perceived as the purest expression of the Finnic myths and beliefs, less influenced by Germanic influence than the Nordic folk dance music that largely replaced the kalevaic tradition.

Finnish folk music has undergone a roots revival in recent decades, and has become a part of popular music. The people of northern Finland, Sweden, and Norway, the Sami , are known primarily for highly spiritual songs called joik.

The same word sometimes refers to lavlu or vuelie songs, though this is technically incorrect. The first Finnish opera was written by the German-born composer Fredrik Pacius in In the s Finnish nationalism based on the Kalevala spread, and Jean Sibelius became famous for his vocal symphony Kullervo.

He soon received a grant to study runo singers in Karelia and continued his rise as the first prominent Finnish musician.

In he composed Finlandia , which played its important role in Finland gaining independence. He remains one of Finland's most popular national figures and is a symbol of the nation.

Another one of the most significant and internationally best-known Finnish-born classical composers long before Sibelius was Bernhard Crusell.

Today, Finland has a very lively classical music scene and many of Finland's important composers are still alive, such as Magnus Lindberg , Kaija Saariaho , Kalevi Aho , and Aulis Sallinen.

Iskelmä coined directly from the German word Schlager , meaning "hit" is a traditional Finnish word for a light popular song. Modern Finnish popular music includes a number of prominent rock bands, jazz musicians, hip hop performers, dance music acts, etc.

During the early s, the first significant wave of Finnish rock groups emerged, playing instrumental rock inspired by groups such as The Shadows.

Around , Beatlemania arrived in Finland, resulting in further development of the local rock scene. During the late s and '70s, Finnish rock musicians increasingly wrote their own music instead of translating international hits into Finnish.

During the decade, some progressive rock groups such as Tasavallan Presidentti and Wigwam gained respect abroad but failed to make a commercial breakthrough outside Finland.

This was also the fate of the rock and roll group Hurriganes. The Finnish punk scene produced some internationally acknowledged names including Terveet Kädet in the s.

Hanoi Rocks was a pioneering s glam rock act that inspired the American hard rock group Guns N' Roses , among others. Many Finnish metal bands have gained international recognition.

HIM and Nightwish are some of Finland's most internationally known bands. Apocalyptica are an internationally famous Finnish group who are most renowned for mixing strings-led classical music with classic heavy metal.

Around twelve feature films are made each year. Finland's most internationally successful TV shows are the backpacking travel documentary series Madventures and the reality TV show The Dudesons , about four childhood friends who perform stunts and play pranks on each other, which have a similar vein to the American TV show Jackass ; Bam Margera , an American professional skateboarder and stunt performer from Jackass , is actually one of good friends of the Dudesons group.

Thanks to its emphasis on transparency and equal rights, Finland's press has been rated the freest in the world.

Today, there are around newspapers, popular magazines, 2, professional magazines, 67 commercial radio stations, three digital radio channels and one nationwide and five national public service radio channels.

Each year, around 12, book titles are published and 12 million records are sold. Sanoma publishes the newspaper Helsingin Sanomat its circulation of , [] making it the largest , the tabloid Ilta-Sanomat , the commerce-oriented Taloussanomat and the television channel Nelonen.

The other major publisher Alma Media publishes over thirty magazines, including the newspaper Aamulehti , tabloid Iltalehti and commerce-oriented Kauppalehti.

Worldwide, Finns, along with other Nordic peoples and the Japanese, spend the most time reading newspapers. Yle, the Finnish Broadcasting Company, operates five television channels and thirteen radio channels in both national languages.

Yle is funded through a mandatory television license and fees for private broadcasters. All TV channels are broadcast digitally , both terrestrially and on cable.

In regards to telecommunication infrastructure, Finland is the highest ranked country in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index NRI — an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies.

Finland ranked 1st overall in the NRI ranking, unchanged from the year before. Value-added services are rare. Finnish cuisine is notable for generally combining traditional country fare and haute cuisine with contemporary style cooking.

Fish and meat play a prominent role in traditional Finnish dishes from the western part of the country, while the dishes from the eastern part have traditionally included various vegetables and mushrooms.

Refugees from Karelia contributed to foods in eastern Finland. Finnish foods often use wholemeal products rye , barley , oats and berries such as bilberries , lingonberries , cloudberries , and sea buckthorn.

Milk and its derivatives like buttermilk are commonly used as food, drink, or in various recipes. Various turnips were common in traditional cooking, but were replaced with the potato after its introduction in the 18th century.

According to the statistics, red meat consumption has risen, but still Finns eat less beef than many other nations, and more fish and poultry.

This is mainly because of the high cost of meat in Finland. Finland has the world's highest per capita consumption of coffee.

All official holidays in Finland are established by Acts of Parliament. Christmas is the most extensively celebrated, and at least 24 to 26 December is taken as a holiday.

Various sporting events are popular in Finland. Pesäpallo , resembling baseball, is the national sport of Finland, although the most popular sports in terms of spectators is ice hockey.

In terms of medals and gold medals won per capita, Finland is the best performing country in Olympic history. At the Summer Olympics , great pride was taken in the three gold medals won by the original " Flying Finn " Hannes Kolehmainen.

At the Summer Olympics , Finland, a nation then of only 3. In the s and '30s, Finnish long-distance runners dominated the Olympics, with Paavo Nurmi winning a total of nine Olympic gold medals between and and setting 22 official world records between and Nurmi is often considered the greatest Finnish sportsman and one of the greatest athletes of all time.

For over years, Finnish male and female athletes have consistently excelled at the javelin throw. The event has brought Finland nine Olympic gold medals, five world championships, five European championships, and 24 world records.

Finland is also one of the most successful nations in bandy , being the only nation beside Russia and Sweden to win a Bandy World Championship.

The Summer Olympics were held in Helsinki. Other notable sporting events held in Finland include the and World Championships in Athletics.

Finland also has a notable history in figure skating. Finnish skaters have won 8 world championships and 13 junior world cups in synchronized skating, and Finland is considered one of the best countries at the sport.

Some of the most popular recreational sports and activities include floorball , Nordic walking , running, cycling, and skiing alpine skiing , cross-country skiing , and ski jumping.

Floorball, in terms of registered players, occupies third place after football and ice hockey. According to the Finnish Floorball Federation, floorball is the most popular school, youth, club and workplace sport.

More than 8, Finns travelled to Spain to support their team. Overall, they chartered more than 40 airplanes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 1 August This article is about the European country. For other uses, see Finland disambiguation.

Nordic country on the Baltic Sea. Show globe. Show map of Europe. Finnish Finn. Main article: History of Finland. Main article: Finland under Swedish rule.

Main article: Grand Duchy of Finland. See also: Finland's language strife and Russification of Finland.

Main article: Geography of Finland. Main articles: Fauna of Finland and Wildlife of Finland. Main article: Climate of Finland. Main article: Regions of Finland.

North Ostrobothnia. North Karelia. Northern Savonia. Southern Savonia. South Ostrobothnia. Central Ostrobothnia. Central Finland. Southwest Finland.

South Karelia. Päijänne Tavastia. Tavastia Proper. Main article: Politics of Finland. See also: List of political parties in Finland and Human rights in Finland.

Main article: President of Finland. Main article: Parliament of Finland. Main articles: Law of Finland and Judicial system of Finland.

Main article: Foreign relations of Finland. Main article: Social security in Finland. See also: List of wars involving Finland.

Main article: Economy of Finland. Main article: Transport in Finland. A VR Class Sr2 locomotive. Three VR Class Sr3 locomotives.

A train of the Helsinki commuter rail network. The state-owned VR operates a railway network serving all major cities in Finland.

See also: Nordic model. Main article: Tourism in Finland. Main article: Demographics of Finland. Other European 4. Asian 2. African 0. Other 0. Languages in Finland [] Languages percent Finnish.

Main article: Religion in Finland. Orthodox Church 1. Other Christian 0. Other religions 0. Unaffiliated Main article: Healthcare in Finland.

Main article: Education in Finland. See also: List of universities in Finland and List of schools in Finland. Main article: Culture of Finland. Main article: Finnish literature.

See also: Architecture of Finland and Art in Finland. Main articles: Cinema of Finland and Television in Finland. See also: Lists of Finnish films.

See also: Telecommunications in Finland and List of newspapers in Finland. Main article: Finnish cuisine.

Main articles: Public holidays in Finland and Flag days in Finland. Main article: Sport in Finland. Finland portal. Legislation recognises only the short name.

See Geonames. Scandinavian Political Studies. According to the Finnish Constitution, the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval, and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire.

Finland is actually represented by its prime minister, and not by its president, in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union.

The constitutional amendments reduced the powers of the president even further. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 1 June Retrieved 27 March United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 10 December Institute for the Languages of Finland. Muinaisuutemme jäljet. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. Archived from the original on 6 December New Zealand was the first country in the world to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, in But women did not get the right to run for the New Zealand legislature, until International Monetary Fund.

Retrieved 17 April Archived from the original on 30 October OECD iLibrary. Archived from the original on 30 April

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